Pre-Production – Script | First Draft | Final Draft |
Production – Narration | Recording | Editing |
Production – Images | Gathering | Preparing | Headshot |
Post-Production | Video Editing |
Distribution | Exporting |
For this project you will use still images, then animate them during the video editing process. The images you use in your video need to meet certain requirements, including the size and permission to use it. Before you start finding images to use, create a folder named images within your Elevator project folder. Use this folder to save copies of all images for this project.
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Keep of Record of Image Sources
Before you start gathering images, create a Google Doc with the name Image Sources and save it in your project images folder.
As you add images to the folder, add the following information about each image:
The file name; the source; why you have permission to use it.
For example, an image from your phone might be noted like this:
IMG_8994.JPG – my phone – I took the photo
An image from a friend might be noted like this:
IMG_4523.JPG – my friend, Jim – He took the photo
A photo from the Google Advanced Search might be noted like this:
Richard_Williams_at_Aardman_Animation_in_2015.jpg – Google Advanced Search – free to use share or modify
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The size of an image you may use depends upon the highest quality format of your final video. The resolution of digital images is measured in pixels. Pixels (meaning picture elements) refers to the square dots that make up an image on a digital screen. The more pixels in an image or video, the more detail it shows.
If you are creating an image for print, the size of the image may be measured in inches. The resolution of a print image is measured by how many pixels fit in an inch: pixels-per-inch, or ppi. If a printed image has less than 300 ppi it it will appear degraded.
For images that appear on a computer screen, images with 72 ppi will appear fine.
For video the resolution of the image is based upon standard video sizes. In the days of analog video, the image was similar to a digital image with 480 lines that each included 640 pixels.
The shape of a video image is known as its aspect ratio. A 4:3 aspect ratio means the width is 4 units wide and the height is 3 units high. (640/4 = 160. 160*3=480)
Most televisions today have screens with a 16:9 aspect ratio. Typical resolutions are one of these:
1280×720: 720 horizontal lines that each include 1280 pixels (720 HD)
1920×1080: 1080 horizontal lines that each include 1920 pixels (1080 Full HD)
3840×2160: 2160 horizontal lines that each include 3840 pixels (4K UltraHD)
For this project you will produce a video that has a 1080 Full HD resolution. Since you will be zooming in or out on the images for your Elevator Pitch Video, each image needs a larger original resolution. If it did not, the image would degrade as you zoom into it.
As you select images for this project, try to use images with an original resolution of at least 3840 pixels wide and 2160 pixels high. If you absolutely cannot find an image with that size, make certain the image is no smaller than 2880 by 1620.
The image you start with does not need to have a 16:9 aspect ratio. Just make sure each horizontal dimension meets the minimum number of pixels. For example, a portrait that is 3000 pixels wide and 4000 pixels high meets the minimum resolution of 2880 wide by 1620 high.
Be sure you do not start with a low resolution image and think you will be able to enlarge it. The process usually ends up with a poor quality image that is obvious when your completed video plays back.
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Before taking this class you probably used any image you could find and included it in your own project. This may be acceptable for things you only share among family and friends, or only include in a classroom-only assignment. However, in this class many projects you create will be shared online. While you may not choose to share your completed Elevator Pitch Video with people outside our class, you need to approach it as if it will be shared with the entire world.
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When someone takes an original photo they own the copyright to it. A copyright protects the creator from people using their work without permission. (Read more about copyright law here.)
Copyright law can get very complex, and nothing you read here should be considered legal advice. While the person who took your photo would normally own the rights to the photo, there is a concept called “work-for-hire.” A work-for-hire means one person hired another to create something. In that case, the person doing the hiring owns the copyright. Lets assume that since you asked someone else to take a photo of you, you “hired” them to do so, and you own the copyright to that photo.
For any original photos you have taken you own the copyright and may use them in your video. For original images you want to use that were taken by family and friends, ask them for permission since they own the copyrights.
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If you cannot use your own photo to illustrate part of your script, or one from a family member or friend, there are many sources you may explore.
The internet has made it easy to find millions of images, but most of these images have its copyright owned by someone. Many copyright holders charge to use their photos, and if you use them without permission you may be charged with violating the copyright law. This could end up costing hundreds or thousands of dollars.
To avoid using an online image and violating the owner’s copyright, there are several things you can do:
The Google Image Advanced Search option
You have probably used images.google.com to find images in the past. But most of the images in your search results are not ones you may use because you need to get permission from the copyright holder.
For example, if you enter animation studio in the search box and press the enter/return key, you will see a lot of great images. But how can you tell which ones are available for you to use without having to pay the copyright owner?
Google has a tool called Advanced Search that used to make it easy to find images you can use. The process is now a little more complicated. Click the Settings tab and select the Advanced search option.
In this example, the Find images with … section shows animation studio in the all these words: field.
Further down the page are the Then narrow your results by… options.
Next to image size: click on any size to reveal the pull down menu. Scroll down and select the Larger than 4 MP option. This will now limit your search to images that meet the minimum size requirements of this project.
When someone owns the copyright to an image, they may allow others to use it by providing a license. In the Advanced Search Then narrow your results by… section, the usage rights: option lets you discover images sorted by their license. (Google has changed the usage rights options. Click here for more information about the different types of licenses.)
Next to usage rights: click on all to reveal the pull down menu. Select the Creative Commons licenses option to find images for this project.
Once your settings are correct, click the Advanced Search button.
Notice how the search results have changed. Instead of seeing all images available, only those with a Creative Common license (according to Google) appear. As you float over an image Licensable should appear.
Click on an image and it will open a closer view that includes information about it.
When you float over the picture, its size will appear in the bottom left corner. If these dimensions meet the size standards, the image will have a high enough resolution to use in your video.
In this example the dimensions are 2816 x 2112. The horizontal dimension of 2816 is a little smaller than the 2880 minimum width recommended above, but it is very close. The 2112 height is greater than the 1620 minimum recommended above. This image will probably work and may be saved in the project images folder.
Use two fingers to click on your Chromebook touchpad. When the context menu opens slick on the Save Image As option.
Navigate to the images folder within your Google drive project folder and click the Save button.
To find out how you may use the image in your project you need to click on the License details link.
In this example, the license is Attribution 2.0 Generic and more details appear on the page.
Attribution means you must give credit to the source of the image. For this license: “You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.”
Return to the image and click on it. A new page should open. In this example the image is part of Wikimedia Commons, a media file repository making available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content.
The top of the page shows the image title. Scrolling down the page to the Summary section shows more information to note in your Images Sources Google Doc. In this example you would include the following:
Image Title: Roy E. Disney Animation Building
Image link: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roy_E._Disney_Animation_Building.jpg
Source: Wikimedia Commons
License link: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
You will use the information in your Image Sources Google Doc when you complete the edit of your video.
It’s a good idea to find a second image if your first image is less than the ideal size. This second choice has a size of 3265 x 2448 which exceeds the size requirement.
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As defined by the U.S. Library of Congress Copyright.gov website, “Fair use is a legal doctrine that promotes freedom of expression by permitting the unlicensed use of copyright-protected works in certain circumstances.” These circumstances include “criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.”
If you need an image of a college you plan to attend, or you want to illustrate a movie, pro-team, performer, etc. you may be able to use an image from their website under the fair use doctrine. You are making a “comment” in your video that the image represents something you admire: you want to attend the school; you are a fan of what is illustrated; etc.
One type of image that most likely falls under “fair use” is a screen grab of a web page from the source you mention in your script: a college, movie, pro-team, performer, etc. Use your Chromebook Chrome web browser and navigate to the page that represents an image in your script.
On your keyboard press the [shift+ctrl+display] keys, then drag a rectangle around the part of the screen you want to capture.
A screen grab of your desktop will be save in your downloads folder. Move the screen grab into your project images folder.
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Other Image Sources
Before the Internet became an easy way to find images, designers would rely on stock photo libraries. Stock photos are images that you may use in your project but you usually have to pay a fee. A Rights Managed photo means you pay a fee each time you use it in a project. A Royalty-Free image means you pay one time to use it in as many projects as you want. Stock photo libraries are now on line, and many of them offer images you may use without paying any fee.
The 21 Amazing Sites With Breathtaking Free Stock Photos web page describes many current sources. As it notes, “Many of these photographs are free from copyright restrictions or licensed under creative commons public domain dedication.” Here are some other sources for stock photos: 15 Best Places for Designers to Get Free Stock Photos Online | 30 Best Websites To Download Free Stock Photos | Free Photos Directory | 25 Free Stock Photo Sites|
Creative commons is a way for creators to share their original works in a way that makes it easy for others to know how they may use them in their own projects.
Whichever online photo library you search and find an image to use in your project, make certain you know how the license allows you to use the image. You need to make note of the license for each image in your Image Sources Google Doc.